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The Medieval Hocket

by Mary E. Wolinski

(Last updated on 30 September 2003)


Etymology of the Word Hoquetus (Old French | Arabic | Latin | Conclusions)
Polyphonic hocketing
The hoquet in Old French poetry
Hockets outside the Middle Ages


The term hocket is used in various ways. In modern parlance it refers to a musical technique by which two or more voices or instruments sing or play in alternation. When one voice stops after one or a few notes, another begins, and so on. Singing or playing instruments in this way is found in music of various style periods and locales. According to late medieval Latin treatises a hocket is made by cutting up sound, and the term designates both that musical technique and the type of music that features it. In medieval French poetry it denotes various kinds of music in addition to learned polyphonic hockets. It is not known how the hocket technique came about in Western medieval music. That is why it is important to understand how scholars have tried to trace the origin and development of the word (etymology). Their theories can suggest where further work needs to be done.

1. Etymology of the Word Hoquetus.

Although the etymology of a word is a matter for linguists to study, when the word is a musical term it may be also of interest to musicologists for a couple of reasons. First, as with all technical terminology, it is natural to ask why a word is apt or at least seemed so to those who coined it. Second, if we find that the origin lies with a certain culture that used it in a similar sense, it offers the possibility of being able to place the technique in a musical context that, in the absence of enough surviving literature from the time, could not have been established by the more common methods of musicologists. The word whose etymology is of interest to us here is the medieval Latin "hoquetus." In the following paragraphs we present the speculations of others on the etymology of this word and consider the most promising directions for further investigation. Although we cannot draw definite conclusions at this time, there is reason to believe that this line of inquiry is worth pursuing further.

There are several points of view about the origin of the Latin word hoquetus.

(a) Some, like Sanders, believe that it was derived from the Old French hoquet, which meant a hiccup or stutter. Most recently, however, Städtler (DEAF) has argued that the French word hoquet, when it signifies the musical technique, is related to the French verb hochier, meaning "to shake."
(b) Farmer, Schneider and Husmann (MGG1) had previously considered hoquetus to have come from the Arabic iqā'āt or al-quat'.
(c) Frobenius (HMT) has argued for a Latin source, occare. These points of view will be examined in turn below.

(a) Old French.

One may ask why the authors of Latin treatises turned a French word into Latin. The writers of thirteenth-century Latin musical treatises on this topic knew French and many of them probably studied in Paris, where this style of music was cultivated. They wrote in Latin because it was an international scholarly language at that time and authors were expected to write in Latin no matter what their native tongue might have been. Suitable Latin terminology did not always exist or, for whatever reason, writers could not always find the appropriate Latin word. Therefore, they latinized words from the vernacular or spoken language.

The French and Latin words for hocket as a musical technique appear in writing at approximately the same time in the third quarter of the thirteenth century, although polyphonic hocketing had existed since at least the beginning of the century. One French example is Adam de la Halle's use of hoquetant to mean hocketing. (See 3. The French hoquet below.)

Another comes from the music theorist Lambertus, whose treatise is one of the first to use the term in Latin. He apparently latinizes the French when he says that the hocket "is called hoket in the vernacular" ("hokectus vulgariter appellatur" [CS 1:281]).

As for the French word for the musical technique, there are two theories about its origin. The most recent, proposed by Städtler (DEAF H:512-20), considers it related to the Old French hochier and similar words in Middle Dutch and Middle High German that mean "to shake." Städtler made this connection because of the liveliness of hockets as described by the music theorist Johannes de Grocheo.

An earlier theory, advocated by the musicologist Ernest Sanders and supported by the etymology of that time (FEW 4:450-2), derived the hocket from the Old French hoquet, meaning a hiccup or stutter. In this case hoquet and related words in Middle Dutch, Flemish and Breton were considered onomatopoeic, that is, they sounded like what they meant. The intermittent stopping and starting of each hocketing voice was thought to resemble hiccuping.

(b) Arabic.

The Arabs had much contact with and influence on Europe in the Middle Ages through scholarship, invasions and trade. In connection with music, certain European instruments, such as the lute (whose name derives from the Arabic al'ud), were imitations of Middle Eastern ones.

In 1925 Farmer suggested that the Latin hoquetus was derived from the Arabic word iqā'āt, meaning "rhythm." Schneider (1929) accepted the derivation, but believed that it was analogous with general musical performance: just as Arabic instruments accompanied a melody by distributing the rhythm among the various players, so in Western music the notes of a melody were broken up and distributed among the voices of a polyphonic piece. Husmann (MGG1) offered a correction, suggesting the noun with its article al-quat', which refers to the act of cutting. However, he never published the article on the etymology of "hoquet" and the Arabian influence on Gothic music that he had announced in MGG1, and the above hypotheses have since been abandoned.

Interestingly, the Arabic word for cotton, al-qutun, was the source for some Old French words that sound like hoquet, such as auqueton, alqueton and hoqueton, meaning cotton cloth or a padded military tunic (FEW 19:100-2). Hoquet was also the long robe of a Capuchin monk (Godefroy 4:496).

(c) Latin.

Because medieval music theorists writing in Latin often describe hocketing as the cutting of sound, Frobenius (HMT) prefers a Latin source word that refers to cutting. He hypothesizes that the Latin verb occare gave rise to the Latin musical term hoccitatio as used by Lambertus (CS 1:281).

The common meaning of occare was to harrow although, starting perhaps in the Middle Ages, it also denoted cutting or breaking off, specifically in the myth of the three Fates, who determined each person's destiny. One Fate held the distaff, another drew the thread of life and the third cut it off (TLL 9/2:359-60; Latham 320). Thus, cutting the thread of life in a figurative sense meant dying.

(d) Conclusions.

There are two competing and viable hypotheses for the origin of the Latin hoquetus. It came either from Old French or from Latin. It is difficult to chose between these hypotheses because both the Latin and French terms denoting the musical technique appear in writing at roughly the same time. If it came from the Latin occare, as Frobenius argues, then the technique was named by learned church musicians, who also may have invented it. However, if it came from the French word hoquet, it is possible that a folk type of music already existed with that name. Indeed, interlocking polyphonic performance is common in various folk cultures. (See 4. Hockets outside the Middle Ages.) Whether this was also true in the Middle Ages would be difficult to determine, but it might be suggested by a comparative study of medieval Old French, Germanic and Celtic literature.

2. Polyphonic hocketing.

Hocketing is a technique found in written polyphonic music of Paris and Notre-Dame Cathedral starting in the thirteenth century. In its simplest form it is the rapid alternation of rests and notes between two or more voices. When one voices pauses, the other sings, giving the effect of gasps or hiccups. In addition, medieval theorists also recognized hocketing within only one voice in a polyphonic piece. In this case, the melody is not sung in normal phrases. Instead, notes or short phrases alternate quickly with rests.

Theorists found ways to describe hocket-like rhythms by comparing them to the normal ones of that time. The most common rhythms, called maneries or modes, consisted of patterns of longs (long notes) and breves (short notes). Johannes de Garlandia and like-minded theorists recognized six rhythmic modes. First, second and sixth modes are conventional or recti, because their longs contain two time units and their breves only one. The third through fifth modes are called ultra mensuram because they exceed the normal note values, the longs having three time units and pairs of breves having one and two time units, respectively. The table below shows patterns of longs and breves, together with the number of time units for each note.

Table 1: The Rhythmic Modes

 Modes Note Values Number of Time Units per Note
 1.  L B, L B, L B, etc. 2 1, 2 1, 2 1, etc.
 2.  B L, B L, B L, etc. 1 2, 1 2, 1 2, etc.
 3.  L B B, L B B, etc. 3 1 2, 3 1 2, etc.
 4.  B B L, B B L, etc. 1 2 3, 1 2 3, etc.
 5.  L, L, L, etc. 3, 3, 3, etc.
 6.  B B B, B B B, etc. 1 1 1, 1 1 1, etc.

Hocketing was created by alternating rests and notes within those pre-set patterns. Early in the thirteenth century it was limited to first, second and fifth modes. The following table shows normal (or perfect) rhythmic passages in each of those three modes compared with an illustration of how they might sound if they were hocketed.

Table 2: Sample Rhythmic Passages

Early hocketing appeared within larger compositions, such as organa, conductus and motets. Example 1 below quotes from a conductus. It is taken from a long melismatic setting of the syllable -nan- from the word fulminante ("threatening"). Notice that the lowest voice maintains a steady rhythm in the first mode (LB, LB). The highest of the three voices (triplum) has a short hocketing passage that consists of five notes. The second voice (duplum) also begins in first mode and then hockets so that its alternating notes and rests interlock with those of the top voice.

Example 1. Dic Christi veritas (Florence, Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana, Pluteo 29, 1, fol. 204)

After the mid-thirteenth century, motets, as well as short, independent pieces called "hockets," began to appear with continuous hocketing throughout. Now all six modes were used, as well as a shorter note value, the semibreve, and its rest. Hocketing was classified by the presence or absence of various elements, such as a tenor (that is, a preexistent melody or melodic pattern in the lowest voice), text, and resecatio (the division of longs or breves by rests into smaller notes).

Also associated with hocketing was the technique of "modal transmution," by which a piece written in one rhythmic mode was transformed into another. A famous example is In seculum longum, written by a Spaniard in a "long" mode (fifth mode in the tenor), and transformed by certain Parisians into a "short" mode (second mode in the tenor). See Example 2 below.

Example 2. In seculum longum and In seculum breve (Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Lit. 115, fols. 63v, 64)


These two pieces are important because each, in its own way, epitomizes the new rhythmic style. In seculum longum illustrates resecatio, or "cutting up." This is because at the same time that the lowest voice (tenor) moves in fifth mode the upper parts hocket more quickly in second mode, that is, they "cut up" the fifth-mode longs into the shorter longs and breves of second mode. In seculum breve is even more daring. Not only do the two upper voices "cut up" in sixth mode (compared with the tenor's second mode), but they also subdivide the breves of sixth mode into smaller semibreves and their rests. These more modern rhythms could be sung only by the most skillful singers. Those who were less trained and capable would find it too difficult, as music theorists of that time pointed out.

In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, hockets were the fastest compositions. According to Jacobus de Montibus, a conservative theorist of the early fourteenth century (Desmond), "if we talk about double and contra-double hockets and certain other measured compositions, according to the Ancients [or traditional musicians] the perfect breve has so quick a measure that three semibreves cannot be sung in place of it correctly or easily," and "the Ancients used a quick measure of breves commonly in motets or the fastest in double hockets" ("...si de hoketis loquimur duplicibus et contraduplicibus et aliis quibusdam mensuratis cantibus, brevis perfecta ita citam, secundum Antiquos, habet mensuram ut non bene vel leviter pro ea tres semibreves dici possunt.... Antiqui cita mensuratione brevium in motetis communiter vel citissima in hoketis duplicibus usi sint..." [Bragard 7:36:5 and 7]).

At this time hocketing also was combined with voice-exchange or rondellus technique, as in the English rondellus Ave virgo mater dei, edited in full in Wibberley, pp. 48-9.

Example 3: Ave virgo mater dei (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lat. liturg. d 20, fol. 13v)

By the early fourteenth century hocketing had become so much a part of compositional style that it was excoriated along with other modern musical techniques by conservative churchmen.

Pope John XXII's Docta sanctorum of 1324 criticized modern composers for using hockets, as well as discant and French motets, "for they cut up chant melodies with hockets, make them slimy with discants, sometimes force upon them vernacular tripla and moteti" ("Nam melodias hoquetis intersecant, discantibus lubricant, triplis et motetis vulgaribus nonnunquam inculcant" [Corpus juris canonici 2:256]).

A Cistercian statute of 1320 requires that plainchant be sung in the traditional way, the modern way "with syncopations of notes and also hockets having been forbidden in our chant simply because such things smack more of looseness than of devotion" ("sincopationibus notarum et etiam hoquetis interdictis in cantu nostro simpliciter quia talia magis dissolutionem quam devotionem sapiant" [Canivez 3:349]).

Throughout the fourteenth century hocketing was used in almost all the polyphonic genres. In motets and mass movements it often highlighted the repetitive structure of isorhythm and ornamented melismatic passages, such as concluding Amens. A particularly clear example can be found in the Credo which has been attributed variously to Bonbarde, Prunet and Perneth, and published in PMFC, vol. 23B, p. 237.

Hocketing appeared also in French chansons, chaces and canons, as well as Italian madrigals and caccias. Occasionally it served a mimetic function, representing a lover's sobs, cries and shouts, the sound of instruments, rustic Italian stuttering or the bleating of sheep. Wessely claims that in three madrigals hocketing was used to emphasize and isolate a woman's name "hidden" within a longer word, for example, ANNAmorar and AN NAve. It depicts trumpeting in the canon "Tres dous compains" (PMFC 20:228-31) and in the tenor and contratenor of Dufay's Gloria Ad modum tubae. (A score of the Dufay Gloria can be found in Dufay vol. 4, pp. 79-80.)

Hockets as self-contained compositions (such as the In seculum hockets of Example 2) died out in the fourteenth century, with the exception of Machaut's hocket David (PMFC 3:65-7) and Pycard's Sanctus (Old Hall 1/2:373-5). Hocketing in general fell out of use as fifteenth-century composers adopted a smoother, more flowing rhythmic style, abandoned isorhythmic structure and lost a taste for rapid contrasts in small note values. However, hocketing in short phrases contributed to the imitative style of Renaissance music. A good example can be found in the anonymous Gloria published in Hoppin, vol. 1, p. 80.

3. The hoquet in Old French poetry.

Late medieval French poetry refers to polyphonic hoques and double hoques along with other types of music-making. Gace de la Buigne, in Le roman des deduis, compares the striking of anvils of various pitches and the baying of hounds to hocketing (375:8080-8, 462:10589-95; 463:106303-10).

Lyrical poems refer to hoquets sung alone by the narrator:

  • "Closing with a latch the walled enclosure, while singing a new hocket, I went off to play" ("Clos des murs, fermant a loquet, En chantent .i. nouviau hoquet, M'alai jouer" [Wilkins, p. 28]);
  • "Then I will sing, `Ai! Ai!' And so I will invent little songs, hockets and new airs, and so I will dance" ("A donc chanterai Ai! Ai! Et si troverai Chansonettes, hokés et notes novelles Et si dancerai" [Streng-Renkonen, p.13]).

Adam de la Halle uses the term in the highest voice of a polyphonic motet. He relates how four young fellows, when they hocket, make percussive sounds faster than the panpipes. They also dance together, beating on the floor while hocketing. ("Quant il hoquetent Plus tost clapetent Que frestel Li damoisel... Et quant il font le moulin Ensamble tout quatre Et au plastre batre En hoquetant" [Tischler, 3:74-6, 4:83-4; Adam de la Halle p. 202-5].)

The above references to French hockets sung by a single person, as well as by rowdy young men, dancing and beating on the floor, indicate that hockets were not performed solely by learned clerics. They were sung by lay people, too. There is otherwise little known about such singing in the folk tradition. More understanding might be gained by a comparative study of medieval vernacular literature.

4. Hockets outside the Middle Ages.

Hocket-like effects are found in various types of folk music and in European classical music of later centuries. They are produced in the flute and trumpet ensembles, xylophones, drums, whistles and horns of sub-Saharan Africa, the flute dance music of New Guinea, the panpipe playing of the Andes and the polyphonic singing of the Swiss Alps and the Georgian Caucasus. Special effects in sixteenth-century English lute music, eighteenth-century French opéra comique, and in the fifth of Mozart's twelve piano variations on Ah, vous dirai-je, Maman can be described as hocketing.

In the twentieth century, composers such as Sofia Gubaidulina, Harrison Birtwistle, Naji Hakim and Osvaldas Balakauskas have borrowed medieval techniques and genres, including hocketing. Arvo Pärt's use of tintinnabulation (the sound of ringing bells) can sound like hocketing, as in his choral piece "...which was the son of..." (2000).

Recent research indicates that we perceive the octave in a hocket-like way. If two notes an octave apart are alternated, each half of the brain hears only the high or low pitch, respectively. Each half, therefore, hears alternating notes and rests, like a hocket (Carapezza).

5. Sources.

General remarks

For general descriptions of the medieval hocket in English, see Dalglish, Sanders, and NG2. For musical scores of medieval hockets and hocketing, many examples can be found from the thirteenth century in Anderson (especially vols. 1, 2 and 3), Roesner, and Tischler, and from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in Dufay (vol. 4), Hoppin, Old Hall, and PMFC.

For discussions in English of hocketing in non-Western music, see Baumann, Donohoe, Koetting, Nketia, and Schmidt. On hocketing in Western contemporary music, see Arias, Davidson, Davis, and Hall.

Bibliographic resources

  • Adam de la Halle. Oeuvres complètes. Translation by Pierre-Yves Badel. Paris: Librairie Générale Française, 1995.
  • Allgayer-Kaufmann, Regine. "Die Hoquetus-Technik in der Musik Afrikas: Ineinandergreifende Spielpartien in Flöten- und Trompetenensembles." Jahrbuch für musikalische Volks- und Volkerkunde, 16 (1997): 39-57.
  • Anderson, Gordon A. Notre-Dame and Related Conductus: Opera Omnia. 10 vols. Henryville, Pa.: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1986-8.
  • Arias, Enrique Alberto. "Reflections from a Distant Mirror: Osvaldas Balakauskas' Requiem in memoriam Stasys Lozoraitis." Lituanus: Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts & Sciences, 43/4 (Winter 1997): 5-27.
  • Arom, Simha. "Une parenté inattendue: Polyphonies médiévales et polyphonies africaines," pp. 135-48. In Polyphonies de tradition orale: Histoire et traditions vivantes. Actes du colloque de Royaumont, 1990. Paris: Éditions Créaphis, 1993.
  • Baumann, Max Peter. "The Kantu Ensemble of the Kallawaya at Charazani (Bolivia)." Yearbook for Traditional Music, 17 (1985): 146-66.
  • Bragard, Roger, ed. Jacobi Leodiensis. Speculum musicae. 7 vols. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1955-73.
  • Broere, Bernard J. "Formes de polyphonie dans la musique instrumentale des Indiens Cuna d'Arquía (Columbie)." Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles, 6 (1993): 153-61.
  • Canivez, J.-M. Statuta capitulorum generalium ordinis cisterciencis. Louvain: Bureau de la Revue, 1933-41. 3:349.
  • Carapezza, Paolo Emilio. "Fondamenti fisiologici dell' opposizione dei due principi costituzionali di construzione ediscorso nella musica medievale," pp. 247-52. In Musica popolare e musica d'arte nel tardo Medioevo. Palermo: Officina de Studi Medievali, 1982.
  • Corpus juris canonici. Aemilius Ludwig Richter, Aemilius Friedberg, eds. 2 vols. Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1879-81; repr. Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1955.
  • [CS] Coussemaker, Charles Édmond Henri de, ed. Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series a Gerbertina altera. 4 vols. Paris: A. Durand, 1864-76; repr. Hildesheim, 1963.
  • Dalglish, William. "The Origin of the Hocket." Journal of the American Musicological Society, 31/1 (Spring 1978): 3-20.
  • __________. "The Use of Variation in Early Polyphony." Musica Disciplina, 26 (1972): 37-51.
  • ____________. "The Hocket in Medieval Polyphony." The Musical Quarterly, 55/3 (July 1969): 344-63.
  • Davidson, Justin. "Gubaidulina's Symbolic World." Newsday (Friday, Feb.15, 2002): B40.
  • Davis, Hope Alysia. "An Examination of Compositional Techniques in Selected Organ Solo Compositions of Naji Hakim." D.M.A. Diss., Louisiana State University, 1996.
  • [DEAF] Baldinger, Kurt and others. Dictionnaire étymologique de l'ancien français. Tübingen, Laval, 1974-.
  • Desmond, Karen. "New light on Jacobus, Author of Speculum musicae." Plainsong and Medieval Music, 9 (2000): 19-40.
  • Donohoe, Patricia Mary. "Breath of Dirima: A Research Project." M.Mus. Thesis, University of New South Wales, 1987.
  • Dufay, Guillaume. Opera omnia. Edited by Heinrich Besseler, David Fallows. 6 vols. Corpus mensurabilis musicae, 1. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1951-95.
  • Elscheková, Alica. ``Typologie der vokalen und instrumentalen Mehrstimmigkeit in der europäischen Volksmusik,'' pp. 61-88. In Festschrift Walter Wiora zum 90. Geburtstag. Edited by Christoph-Hellmut Mahling and Ruth Seiberts. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1997.
  • Farmer, Henry George. "Clues for the Arabian Influence on European Musical Theory." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, series 3 (1925): 61-80.
  • [FEW] Wartburg, Walter von, and others. Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Basel, 1940-.
  • Gace de la Buigne. Le roman des deduis. Edited by Ake Blomqvist. Karlshamn: Johanssons Boktryckeri, 1951.
  • Godefroy, Frédéric. Dictionnarie de l'ancienne langue française et tous ses dialectes du ixe au xve siècle. 10 vols. Paris, 1885; repr. New York: Kraus Repr. Corp., 1961.
  • Gullo, S. Das Tempo in der Musik des xiii. und xiv. Jahrhunderts. Bern, 1964.
  • Hall, Michael. "Die Welt des Harrison Birtwistle: Quellen--Musik--Prozessionales--Zeitzyklen--Theatralik," pp. 7-11. In Wien modern: Ein internationales Festival mit Musik, Film, Theater, Literatur und bildender Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts, 18. Oktober bis 24. November 1991. Wien, 1991.
  • Harbison, Denis. "The Hocket Motets in the Old Corpus of the Montpellier Motet Manuscript." Musica Disciplina, 25 (1971): 99-112.
  • [HMT] Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie. S.v. "Hoquetus," by Wolf Frobenius.
  • Hoppin, Richard H., ed. The Cypriot-French Repertory of the Manuscript Torino, Biblioteca Nazionale, J.II.9. 4 vols. Corpus mensurabilis musicae, 21. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1960.
  • [Old Hall] Hughes, Andrew and Margaret Bent, eds. The Old Hall Manuscript. 3 vols. in 4. Corpus mensurabilis musicae, 46. American Institute of Musicology, 1969.
  • Jeffery, Peter. "A Four-Part In Seculum Hocket and a Mensural Sequence in an Unknown Fragment." Journal of the American Musicological Society, 37/1 (Spring 1984): 1-48.
  • Koetting, James. "Hocket Concept and Structure in Kasena Flute Ensemble Music." Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, 5 (1984): 160-72.
  • Latham, R. E. Revised Medieval Latin Word-List from British and Irish Sources. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.
  • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. "Compositional Procedure in Machaut's Hoquetus David." Royal Musical Association Research Chronicle, 16 (1980): 99-109.
  • [MGG2] Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 2nd ed. S.v. "Hoquetus," by Karl Kügle.
  • [MGG1] Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 1st ed. S.v. "Hoquetus," by Heinrich Husmann.
  • ______. S.v. "In seculum," by Luther Dittmer.
  • [NG2] The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed. "Hocket," by Ernest Sanders.
  • Newcomb, Wilburn Wendell. Studien zur englischen Lautenpraxis in elisabethanischen Zeitalter: Beitrage zur Kenntnis des spezifischen Instrumental-Stils zwischen Spatrenaissance und Fruhmonodie. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1968.
  • Nketia, J. H. Kwabena. "The Hocket-Technique in African Music." Journal of the International Folk Music Council, 14 (1962): 44-52.
  • [Old Hall] See under Hughes, Andrew and Margaret Bent, eds.
  • Petzsch, Christoph. "Neues zum Hoquetus Herz prich Oswalds von Wolkenstein." Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur, 116/2 (1987): 100-3.
  • [PMFC] Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century. See especially the following volumes:
    • 2-3, The Works of Guillaume de Machaut. Edited by Leo Schrade. 1956.
    • 5, Motets of French Provenance. Edited by Frank Ll. Harrison. 1968.
    • 6, Italian Secular Music. Edited by W. Thomas Marrocco. 1967.
    • 14, English Music of the Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries. Edited by Ernest H. Sanders. 1979.
    • 15, Motets of English Provenance. Edited by Frank Ll. Harrison. 1980.
    • 20, French Secular Music. Edited by Gordon K. Greene. 1982.
    • 23, French Sacred Music. Edited by Giulio Cattin and Francesco Facchin. 1991.
    • 24, The Works of Johannes Ciconia. Edited by Margaret Bent and Anne Hallmark. 1985.
  • Roesner, Edward H., ed. Les Quadrupla et tripla de Paris. Le Magnus liber organi de Notre-Dame de Paris, 1. Les Remparts, Monoco: Éditions de l'Oiseau-Lyre, 1993.
  • Sanders, Ernest H. "The Medieval Hocket in Practice and Theory." The Musical Quarterly, 60/2 (April 1974): 246-56.
  • Schmidt, Cynthia E. "Interlocking Techniques in Kpelle Music." Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, 5 (1984): 194-216.
  • Schneider, Marius. "Der Hochetus." Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft, 11 (1929): 390-6.
  • Stones, Linda Mae. "Musical Characterization in Eighteenth-Century Opéra Comique: Tom Jones, Le deserteur and Richard Coeur-de-Lion." D.M.A. Diss., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1985.
  • Streng-Renkonen, Walter O. Les estampies françaises. Paris: Champion, 1930.
  • Thurston, Ethel. The Conductus Collections of MS Wolfenbüttel 1099. 4 vols. Madison: A-R Editions, 1980.
  • Tischler, Hans, ed. The Montpellier Codex. 4 vols. Translations by Susan Stakel and Joel C. Relihan. Madison: A-R Editions, Inc., 1978-85.
  • [TLL] Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. Leipzig: B.G. Teubner, 1900-.
  • Wessely, Othmar. "Über den Hoquetus in der Musik zu Madrigalen des Trecento,'' pp. 10-28. In De ratione in musica: Festschrift E. Schenk. Edited by Th. Antonicek, R. Flotzinger, O. Wessely. Kassel, 1975.
  • Wibberley, Roger. "Ave virgo mater dei: Towards a Reconstruction." Plainsong & Medieval Music, 9/1 (2000): 41-9.
  • Wilkins, Nigel, ed. The Works of Jehan de Lescurel. Corpus mensurabilis musicae, 30. American Institute of Musicology, 1966.
  • Zaminer, Frieder and Suzanne Ziegler. "Polyphonie médiévale et polyphonie du Caucase," pp. 69-84. In Polyphonies de tradition orale: Histoire et traditions vivantes. Actes du colloque de Royaumont, 1990. Paris: Éditions Créaphis, 1993.

To Return to the Contents of this Article:

Top of page | Etymology (Old French, Arabic, Latin, Conclusions) | Polyphonic hocketing | The hoquet in Old French poetry | Hockets outside the Middle Ages | Sources |

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