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A General Bibliography for Research in the History of Medieval Christianity

Compiled by Thomas Head
Hunter College and the Graduate Center, CUNY


Prolegomena: David Knowles, Great Historical Enterprises (London, 1964) provides an extremely interesting and compelling overview of the development of certain of the major collections of medieval documents; Marcel Pacaut, Guide de l'étudiant en histoire médiévale (Paris, 1973) provides a better concise bibliography than anything currently available for purchase in English; Jacques Berlioz, et al., Identifier sources et citations (LÍAtelier du médiéviste, 1; Turnhout, 1994) provides an annotated guide to bibliography as well as to individual genres of sources; Louis John Paetow, A Guide to the Study of Medieval History, second revised edition (London, 1932) remains, although necessarily dated, still useful as the most ambitious bibliographical (and implicitly historiographical) synoptic survey of medieval studies ever undertaken; this has been revised and updated by Gray Boyce as Literature of Medieval History, 1930-1975, 5 volumes (Millwood, NY, 1981) in a work that is far more comprehensive and, although less intellectually compelling and extremely frustrating in its organization, quite useful. Also useful is E. V. Crosby, C. J. Bishko, and R. L. Kellogg, Medieval Studies: A Bibiliographical Guide (New York: Garland, 1983). For recent periodical literature, see the topical index provided by the International Medieval Bibliography.

 

1. Major collections of sources (largely narrative).

Patristics, theology, and church history: J. P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus: Series graeca, 176 volumes (Paris, 1857-1876); Patrologiae cursus completus: Series latina, 221 volumes (Paris, 1841-64). More recent editions of many of the works contained in these collections may be found in the following ongoing series: Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum (Vienna); Corpus christianorum, series latina, Corpus christianorum, series graeca, Corpus christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis (all published in Turnhout); Sources chrétiennes (Paris). Also see Henry Denzinger, Enchiridion symbolorum: definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum, 34th ed., ed. Schoeenmetzer (Freiburg, 1967) [a short handbook of doctrinal pronouncements].

Bible: the standard version of the Vetus Latina is Pierre Sabatier (ed.), Bibliorum sacrorum latinae versiones antiquae seu Vetus italica, 3 volumes (Reims, 1743-49); this is currently in the process of a modern edition in Vetus latina. Die Reste der altlateinischen Bibel (Beuron, 1951-present); there are numerous editions of the Vulgate, the most recent of which is Nova vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum editio, cum commentariis (Turnhout, 1986); this is also currently in the course of a modern edition in Biblia sacra iuxta latinam vulgatam versionem (Rome, 1926-present). A standard translation of the Vulgate into English may be found in The Holy Bible: Douay Version (Douay, 1609, with many reeditions and reprints). One standard concordance to the Vulgate is Concordantiarum ss. scripturae manuale (Paris, 1939 and reprints).

Church councils and canon law: Philippe Labbe and Gabriel Cossart (eds.), Sacrosancta concilia, 17 volumes in 18 (Paris, 1671-73); revised edition by N. Coleti, 23 volumes (Venice, 1728-33); Giovanni Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, 31 vols. (Florence and Venice, 1759-98); revised edition of the latter by J.-B. Martin and L. Petit, 53 vols. in 60 (Paris, 1899-27; reprint, Graz, 1960-62); Erich Caspar (ed.), Corpus Iuris Canonici, 1: Decretum Magistri Gratiani (Leipzig, 1879); Emil Friedberg (ed.), Corpus Iuris Canonici, 2: Decretales Gregorii IX (Leipzig, 1881).

Hagiography: Sanctuarium, seu Vitae sanctorum, ed. Boninus Mombritius (Bonino Mombrizio), 2 vols. (Milan, ca. 1477; reprint edition, Paris, 1910); Acta sanctorum ordinis sancti Benedicti, ed. Luc d'Achéry and Jean Mabillon, first edition, 9 vols. (Paris, 1668-1701); Acta Sanctorum quotquot toto orbe coluntur, eds. Jean Bolland, Daniel Papenbroeck, et al., first edition (Antwerp and Brussels, 1643-present); De probatis sanctorum historiis ed. Laurentius Surius [Laurence Suhr], 6 vols. and index (first edition, Cologne, 1570-75; second edition, 1576-1581; third edition, Venice, 1581; fourth editon in 12 volumes, Cologne, 1618; fifth edition in 13 volumes [Historiae seu Vitae sanctorum . . .], Marieta, 1875-1880).

Italy: Italia sacra, sive De episcopis italiae ad insularum adjacentium, ed. Ferdinando Ughelli, 9 vols. (Rome, 1644-62; revised edition in 10 volumes, Venice, 1717-22; reprint, 1970); Ludovico Muratori, et al. (eds.), Rerum italicarum scriptores ab anno aerae christianae quingentesimo ad millesimum quingentesimum, 25 vols. in 28 (Milan, 1723-1751); G. Carducci and V. Fiorini, Rerum italicarum scriptores. Racolta deglli storici italiani dal cinquecento al millecinquecento [revised edition of previous known as the "New Muratori"] (Cittá di Castello and Bologna, 1900-present); Fonti per storia d'Italia (Rome, 1887-present); Regesta chartarum Italiae, 32 volumes (Rome, 1907-present).

Iberia: España sagrada, eds. Enrique Florez, et al., 58 vols. (Madrid, 1747-1954); Portugaliae Monumenta historica a saeculo octavo post Christum usque ad quintum decimum, 6 volumes (Lisbon, 1856-97).

France: Gallia christiana, second edition, 16 volumes (Paris, 1715-1785); Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, ed. M. Bouquet et al., 24 volumes (Paris, 1738-1833; reedition, 1896-1904). Also texts published in Chartes et diplômes relatifs à l'Histoire de France; Collection des documents inédits relatifs à l'Histoire de France; Classiques de l'Histoire de France au Moyen Age.

Germany and Empire: Monumenta Germaniae historica (Hannover and Berlin, 1826-present).

England: Rerum britannicarum medii aevi scriptores (Rolls Series), 99 volumes in 253 (London, 1858-1896). Also texts published by the Camden Society, the Early English Text Society, Nelson's Medieval Texts, and Oxford Medieval Texts.

Byzantium and the east: Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae, 50 volumes (Bonn, 1828-97); Corpus fontium historiae byzantinae (Washington and Berlin, 1967-present); Recueil des historiens des Croisades: Historiens occidentaux, 5 vols. (Paris, 1841-95).

 

2. Guides to sources.

General: A. Potthast, Bibliotheca historica medii aevi. Wegweiser durch die Geschichtswerke des europaischen Mittelalters bis 1500 (Berlin, 1862; new edition in 2 volumes, Graz, 1954); Repertorium fontium historiae medii aevi, 5 volumes to date (Rome, 1962-present) [known as the "new Potthast"]; Max Manitius, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, 3 volumes (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, IX, 2; Munich, 1911-31); Franz Brunhölzl, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, 2 volumes to date (Munich, 1975-present) [a French translation is also underway]; János Bak, Medieval Narrative Sources: A Chronological Guide (New York, 1987); Thesaurus linguae Latinae . . . Index librorum, scriptorum, inscriptionum ex quibus exempla afferuntur, fifth edition (Leipzig, 1990); Raoul van Caenegem, Introduction aux sources de l'histoire médiévale (Turnhout: Brepols, 1995). And now see the extremely useful advice and bibliographies provided in Jacques Berlioz, et al. (eds.), Identifier sources et citations (L'atelier du médiéviste, 1; Turnhout, 1994) [organized into chapters by type of source].

Patristic: Eligius Dekkers, Clavis patrum latinorum, second edition (Steenbrugge, 1961) and M. Geerard, Clavis patrum graecorum (Turnhout, 1974-83). See also J. Machielsen (ed.), Clavis patristica pseudepigraphorum medii aevi, I: Homiletica, 2 vols. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1990) and Clavis patristica pseudepigraphorum medii aevi, II: Theologica, exegetica, ascetica, monastica, 2 vols. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1994).

Biblical: Bruce Metzger and Michael Coogan (eds.), The Oxford Companion to the Bible (Oxford, 1993); Robert McNally, The Bible in the Early Middle Ages (Atlanta, 1959); Patarick McGurk, Latin Gospel Books from A.D. 400 to A.D. 800 (Les Publications de Scriptorium, 5; Paris, 1961); André Vernet, La bible au moyen âge: Bibliographie (Paris, 1989); Henri de Lubac, Exégèse médiévale: Les quatre sens de l'Ecriture, 2 volumes in 4 (Paris, 1959-64); Friedrich Stegmüller, Repertorium biblicum medii aevi, 11 volumes (Madrid, 1940-80); Klaus Reinhart and Horacio Santiago-Otero, Biblioteca biblica ibérica medieval (Madrid, 1986); David Norton, A History of the Bible as Literaure: Volume 1, From the Beginnings to Jerome (Cambridge, 1993).

Church councils: Charles Joseph von Hefele, Histoire des conciles d'après les documents originaux, trans. and augmented by Henri Leclercq 11 vols. (Paris, 1907-49); G. Alberigo, et al. (eds.), Les conciles oecuméniques, 1: L'histoire, trans. J. Mignon (Paris, 1994); G. Alberigo, et al. (eds.), Les conciles oecuméniques, 2: Les décrets, trans. A. Duval et al., 2 vols. (Paris, 1994).

Papal acts and sources: Phillipe Jaffé with Samuel Loewenfeld (eds.), Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, second edition, Wilhelm Wattenbach, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1885-8); A. Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum inde ab a. post Christum natum 1198 ad a. 1304, 2 volumes (Leipzig, 1874-5).

Hagiography: Bibliotheca hagiographica latina antiquae et mediae aetatis. 4 vols. (Subsidia hagiographica, 6, 12 and 70; Brussels, 1898, 1911, 1986); Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca, revised edition (Subsidia hagiographica, 8a; Brussels, 1957); Vies des saints et des bienheureux par les reverends pères bénédictins de Paris, eds. Jules Baudot, Paul Antin, and Jacques Dubois, 13 vols. (Paris, 1935-1959); Bibliotheca Sanctorum, 13 vols. (Rome, 1961-1969).

Diplomatic sources [royal acts and charters]: A. Giry, Manuel de diplomatique (Paris, 1894; reprint, Paris, 1925; reprint, New York, 1972); A. de Boüard, Manuel de diplomatique française et pontificale, 3 volumes (Paris, 1929-52); Harry Bresslau, Handbuch der Urkundenlehre für Deutschland und Italien, (Berlin, 1889; second edition in 2 volumes, Leipzig, 1912-31; index by H. Schulze, Berlin, 1960); Georges Tessier, Diplomatique royale française (Paris, 1962); Olivier Guyotjeanin, Jacques Pycke, and Benoît-Michel Tock, Diplomatique médiéval (L'atelier du médiéviste, 2; Turnhout, 1993).

Italy: U. Balzani, Le cronache italiane nel medio evo, third edition (Milan, 1909); Paolo Cammarosano, Italia medievale: Strutture e geografia delle fonti scritte (Rome: La Nuova Italia Scientifica, 1992).

Iberia: Manuel Diaz y Diaz, Index Scriptorum Latinorum Medii Aevi Hispanorum, 2 volumes (Salamanca, 1958-59); A. H. de Oliveira Marques, Guia do estudiante de historia medieval Portuguese (Lisbon, 1960); M. A. Valle Cintra, Bibliografia de textos medievais portugueses (Lisbon, 1960).

France: Auguste Molinier, Les sources de l'histoire de france des origines aux guerres d'Italie (Paris, 1901-6). This work is presently being updated in: Robert Fawtier, et al. (eds.), Les sources de l'histoire de France des origines à la fin du XVe siècle (Paris, 1971-present). The only volume of this work which has been published so far, however, is: P.-M. Duval, La Gaule jusqu'au milieu du Ve siècle, 2 vols. (Paris, 1971). The Histoire littéraire de la France (1733-present) can be useful on some subjects. On charters, see Henri Stein, Bibliographie générale des cartulaires français ou relatifs à l'histoire de France (Manuels de bibliographie historique, 4; Paris, 1907). On early narrative sources, see the extremely useful, but maddeningly incomplete, catalogues compiled by Ferdinand Lot, et al., "Index Scriptorum Operumque Latino-Gallicorum Medii Aevi (500-1000)," Archivum latinitatis medii aevi, 14 (1939), pp. 113-230 and "Index Scriptorum Operumque Latino-Gallicorum Medii Aevi, saeculum XI (1000-1108)," Archivum latinitatis medii aevi, 16 (1941), pp. 5-59. These are being slowly replaced by the following series: M.-H. Jullien and F. Perelman (eds.), Clavis Scriptorum Latinorum Medii Aevi Sectio I: Auctores Galliae Pars I: 735-987 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1994).

Germany and the empire: Wilhelm Wattenbach and Wilhelm Levison, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter, Vorzeit und Karolinger, 6 vols. (Weimar, 1952-1990); Wilhelm Wattenbach and Robert Holtzmann, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter: Die Zeit der Sachsen und Salier, revised by Franz-Josef Schmale, 3 vols. (Darmstadt, 1967-71); Wilhelm Wattenbach and Franz-Josef Schmale, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter. Vom Tode Kaiser Heinrichs II. bis zum Ende des Interregnum (Darmstadt, 1976) [note: only the first volume of this ongoing project has appears]; Oswald Lorenz, Deutchslands Geschichtsquellen im mittelalterlichen Seit der Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1886-7); H. Vildhaut, Handbuch der quellenkunde zur deutschen Geschichte vom fall der Staufer bis zum Auftreten des humanismus, second edition, 2 volumes (Werl, 1906-9); Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann and Georg Waitz, Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte: Bibliographie der Quellen und der Literatur zur deutschen Geschichte, tenth edition, ed. Hermann Heimpel and Herbert Geuss (Stuttgart, 1965-present); A. Lhotsky, Quellenkunde zur mittelalterlichen österrreichischen Geschichte (Graz, 1963); J.-L. Santschy, Manuel de bibliographie générale de l'histoire suisse (Bern, 1961).

Central Europe: Karl Bosl (ed.), Handbuch der Geschichte der böhmischen Länder, 2 volumes (Stuttgart, 1967-74); H. Zeisberg, Die polnische Geschichstsschreibung des Mittelalters (Leipzig, 1873; reprint, 1968); P. David, Les sources de l'histoire de Pologne à l'époque des Piasts (983-1386) (Paris, 1934); C. A. Macartney, The Medieval Hungarian Historians: A Critical and Analytical Guide (Cambridge, 1953); A. F. Gombos, Catalogus fontium historiae Hungariae 800-1301, 3 volumes (Budapest, 1937-43); Georgius Györffy, et al. (eds.), Diplomata Hungariae antiquissima (accedunt epistolae et acta ad historiam Hungariae pertinentia), 1: Ab anno 1000 usque ad annum 1131 (Budapest, 1992).

Low countries: Léopold Genicot and Paul Tombeur (eds.), Index Scriptorum Operumque Latino-Belgicorum medii Aevi. Nouveau répertoire des oeuvres mediolatines belges, 5 volumes (Brussels, 1973-79); H. de Buck, Bibliografie der geschiedenis van nederland, second ed. (Utrecht, 1979); Henri Pirenne, Bibliographie de lÍhistoire de Belgique, third ed. (Brussels, 1931).

England: Thomas D. Hardy, Descriptive Catalogue of Materials Relating to the History of Great Britain and Ireland, to the End of the Reign of Henry VII (1862-71; reprint, 1964 ff.); Edgar Graves, A Bibliography of English History to 1485 (Oxford, 1975). Also see the Bibliographical Handbooks published by the Conference on British Studies: Volume 1: Anglo-Norman England: 1066-1145, ed. Michael Altschul (London, 1969); Volume 2: 1145-1377, ed. Bruce Wilkinson (London); Volume 3: 1377-1485, ed. D. Guth (London, 1978). Also see Antonia Gransden, Historical Writing in England, 2 volumes (London, 1974-82). Excellent annual bibliographies of Anglo-Saxon studies arranged by subjects may be found in the numbers of Anglo-Saxon England. For vernacular literature, see J. Burke Severs (ed.), A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500 (New Haven), as well as the relevant volumes of The Cambridge History of English Literature, ed. A. W. Ward, 15 vols. (Cambridge, 1907-27) and The Oxford History of English Literature, ed. F. P. Wilson, et al. (Oxford, 1945-present).

Celtic lands: Michael Lapidge and Richard Sharpe, A Bibliography of Celtic-Latin Literature, 400-1200 (Dublin, 1965). Also see J. F. Kenney, The Sources for the Early History of Ireland: An Introduction and Guide, Volume I: Ecclesiastical (New York, 1929; reprint, 1966); Kathleen Hughes, Early Christian Ireland (The Sources of History; London, 1972); R. Ian Jack, Medieval Wales (The Sources of History; London, 1972); A. O. Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, A.D. 500-1286, 2 volumes (Edinburgh, 1922); B. Webster, Scotland from the Eleventh Century to 1603 (The Sources of History; London, 1975).

Byzantium and the east: F. Dölger, Byzantinische Diplomatik (Ettal, 1956); K. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literature von Justinian bis zum Ende des Ostroemischen Reiches, 527-1453, second edition (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, IX, 1; Munich, 1897); H. G. Beck, Geschichte der byzantinischen Volksliteratur (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, XII, 2 and 3; Munich, 1971); H. Hunger, Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner, 2 volumes (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, XII, 5; Munich, 1978); J. Karayannopulos and G. Weiss. Quellenkunde zur Geschichte von Byzanz (324-1453) (Wiesbaden, 1982); A. S. Atiya, The Crusades: Historiogrphay and Bibliography (Bloomington, 1962); Hans Eberhard Meyer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Kreuzzüge (Hanover, 1960); R. Auty and Dmitri Obolensky (eds.), Introduction to Russian Language and Literature (Cambridge, 1977); G. Podskalsky, Christentum und theologische Literatur in der Kiever Rus' (988-1237) (Munich, 1982); O. Mazal, Manuel d'études byzantines (Turnhout: Brepols, 1994).

Economic history: The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Volumes 1-3, ed. M. M. Postan, et al. (Cambridge, 1956-63); Robert-Henri Bautier and J. Sonnay, Les sources de l'histoire économique et sociale du moyen âge (Paris, 1984).

Liturgical sources: Richard Pfaff, Medieval Latin Liturgy: A Select Bibliography (Toronto, 1982); Cyrille Vogel, Medieval Liturgy: An Introduction to the Sources, trans. William Storey and Niels Krogh Rasmussen (Washington, DC, 1986); John Harper, The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the Tenth to the Eighteenth Century: A Historical Introduction and Guide for Students and Musicians (Oxford, 1991).

Guides to topoi: E. Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Miracles: Imitative, Realistic, and Dogmatic (Philadelphia, 1884; reprint Detroit, 1966); Stith Thompson, Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, revised edition (Bloomington, 1955-58); Frederic Tubach, Index exemplorum: A Handbook of Medieval Religious Tales (Helsinki, 1969).

More specific references: For more specific guides to various genres of sources see the relevant volumes of the Toronto Medieval Bibliographies (1: Old Norse and Icelandic Studies, ed. Hans Bekker-Nielson; 2: Old English Literature, ed. Fred Robinson; 3: Medieval Rhetoric, ed. James Murphy; 4: Medieval Music: The Sixth Liberal Art, ed. Andrew Hughes; 5: Medieval Celtic Literature, ed. Rachel Bromwich; 6: Medieval Monasticism, ed. Giles Constable; 7: La Littérature occitane du moyen âge, ed. Robert Taylor; 8: Medieval Latin Paleography, ed. Leonard Boyle; 9: Medieval Latin Liturgy, ed. Richard Pfaff) and the Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental. For guidance to the translations of medieval sources, see C. D. Farrar and A. P. Evans, Bibliography of English Translations from Medieval Sources (New York, 1946); updated by M. A. H. Ferguson as Bibliography of English Translations from Medieval Sources, 1964-67 (New York, 1974). For a useful guide to recent secondary literature in French: Michel Balard (ed.), L'histoire médiéval en France: Bilan et perspectives (Paris: Editions de Seuil, 1991) and Bibliographie de l'histoire médiévale en France (1965-1990) (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1992). The former is a set of historiographical essays, while the latter provides a series of topical bibliographies.

 

3. Encyclopedias.

Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. Joseph Strayer, et al., 13 vols. (New York, 1982-89).

Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, eds. Fernand Cabrol, Henri Leclercq, and Henri Marrou, 15 vols. (Paris, 1907-53).

Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. Alfred Baudrillart, et al., 23 volumes to date (Paris, 1912-present).

Dictionnaire de droit canonique, 7 vols., eds. A. Villien, E. Magnin, A. Amanieu, and Raoul Naz (Paris: Letouzey, 1935-65).

Dictionnaire de la France médiévale , ed. Jean Favier (Paris: Fayard, 1993).

Dictionnaire de spiritualité, ascétique et mystique, doctrine et histoire, eds. Joseph de Guibert, Marcel Viller, F. Cavallera, et al., 16 volumes to date (Paris, 1937-present).

Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, eds. A. Vacant, E. Mangenot, and E. Amann, 15 volumes (Paris, 1909-1950).

Dictionnaire des auteurs grecs et latins de l'Antiquité et du Moyen Age, eds. W. Buchwald, A. Hohlweg, and O. Prinz, trans. J. D. Berger and Jacques Billen (Turnhoult, 1991).

Dictionnaire des biographies, 2: Le Moyen Age, eds. Yves bernard, et al. (Paris, 1993).

Dictionnaire des lettres françaises: Le Moyen Age., eds. Robert Bossuat, Louis Pichard, and Guy de Lage (Paris: Fayard, 1964).

Dizionario patristico e di antichita cristiane, ed. A. Di Berardino (Turin, 1983).

Enciclopedia Cattolica, ed. Giuseppe Pizzardo and Pio Paschini, 12 volumes (Vatican City, 1948-1954).

Encyclopaedia Judaica, eds. Cecil Roth and Geoffrey Wigoder, 16 volumes (New York, 1971-2).

Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law, ed. A. Berger (Philadelphia, 1958).

The Encyclopedia of Islam, new edition, eds. H. A R. Gibb, et al., 7 volumes to date (Leiden, 1960-present).

Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, ed. Everett Ferguson, et al. (New York, 1990).

Encyclopedia of the Early Church, ed. Angelo di Berardino, trans. Adrian Walford, 2 volumes (Oxford, 1992).

Lexikon des Mittelalters, 6 volumes to date (Munich, 1980-present).

Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, second edition, ed. Michael Buchberger, Josef Höfer, and Karl Rahner, 10 volumes (Freiburg, 1957-68).

Lexique historique du Moyen Age, eds. René Fedou, et al. (Paris, 1995).

Medieval England: An Encyclopedia, ed. Paul Szarmach, et al. (New York: Garland, 1998).

Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, ed. William Kibler and Grover Zinn (New York: Garland, 1995).

Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia, ed. E. M. Gerli, et al. (New York: Garland, in press).

Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, ed. C. Kleinhenz, et al. (New York: Garland, in press).

Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia, ed. Philip Pulsiano and Kirsten Wolf (New York: Garland, 1993).

The Middle Ages: A Concise Encyclopedia, ed. H. R. Loyn, et al. (London, 1989).

New Catholic Encyclopedia, ed. William McDonald, et al., 17 volumes (New York 1967).

Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. Frank Cross and Elizabeth Livingstone, second edition (Oxford, 1974).

Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed. Alexander Kazhdan, et al. (Oxford, 1991).

Realencyclopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, third edition, 26 volumes (Leipzig, 1896-1913).

Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum (Stuttgart, 1950-present).

 

4. Guides to words: Dictionaries, etc.

Standard multivolume dictionary of medieval latin: Charles Du Fresne Du Cange, Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis (Paris, 1678), standard edition as by F. Favre, 10 vols. (Niort, 1883-1887; reprint, Paris, 1937-38).

Standard single volume dictionary of medieval latin: Mediae latinitatis lexicon minus, ed. J. F. Niermeyer, with C. Van de Kieft (Leiden, 1976). Provides English and French.

Brief discussions of some major technical terms may be found in: R. Klauser and O. Meyer, Clavis mediaevalis. Kleines Wörterbuch der Mittelalterforschung (Wiesbaden, 1962); Pierre Bonnassie, Les cinquante mots clefs de lÍhistoire médiévale (Toulouse: Privat, 1990); Peter Dinzelbacher, Sächwörterbuch der Mediävistik (Stuttgart, 1992). For guidance to the terminology of the following lexigraphical sources: Olga Weijers, Dictionnaires et répertoires au moyen âge: Une étude du vocabulaire (Turnhout, 1991).

Other multivolume dictionaries: Totius latinitatis lexicon, ed. Egidio Forcellini, 6 volumes (Prato, 1858-75, and reprints); Thesaurus linguae latinae, 10 volumes to date (Leipzig, Munich, 1900-present) [for addenda to this work, see Antonio Ferrua, Note al Thesaurus linguae latinae: addenda et corrigenda {Bari, 1986}]; Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch bis zum Ausghenden 13. Jahrhundert, eds. Otto Prinz, et al., 2 volumes to date [to C] (Munich, 1959-present).

Other brief dictionaries: A Latin Dictionary, eds. Charlton Lewis and Charles Short (Oxford, 1879 and reprints); Oxford Latin Dictionary, ed. P. G. W. Glare, 2 volumes (Oxford, 1968-82); Mittellateinisches Glossar, eds. Edwin Habel and Friedrich Gröbel, second edition (Paderborn, 1989).

Etymological guides: Lexicon der lateinischen wortformen, ed. Karl Ernst Georges (Leipzig, 1890); Giovanni Alessio, Lexicon etymologicum: supplemento ai Dizionari etimologici latini e romanzi, ed. A. Landi (Naples, 1976); Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine: Histoire des mots, ed. A. Ernout and A. Meillet, fourth edition with additions and corrections by Jacques André (Paris, 1985).

Italy: Latinitatis italicae medii aevi inde ab anno 476 usque ad annum 1022 lexicon imperfectum, eds. Francesco Arnaldi, Maria Turiani and Pasquale Smiraglia, 4 vols. in 3 (Milan, 1939-64), with two volumes of addenda published by Pasquale Smiraglia (Brussels, 1978).

England: Medieval Latin Word List from British and Irish Sources, eds. J. H. Baxter and Charles Johnson (Oxford, 1934); revised edition, Revised Medieval Latin Word List from British and Irish Sources, ed. R. E. Latham et al. (Oxford, 1965). A new version is in preparation: Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, ed. R. E. Latham et al. (London, 1975-present).

Low Countries: Lexicon latinitatis Nederlandicae Medii Aevi, eds. Johan Wilhelmus Fuchs, with Olga Weijers and Marijke Gumbert-Hepp, 4 volumes to date [to F] (Leiden, 1977-present).

Scandinavia: Novum glossarium mediae latinitatis ab a. DCCC usque ad a. MCC (Copenhagen, 1957-present); Lexicon mediae latinitatis Danicae, ed. Bente Friis Johanses, et al., new edition by Franz Blatt, four fasicles to date (Arhus, 1987-present).

Hungary: Lexicon latinitatis medii aevi hungariae (Budapest, 1987).

Ecclesiastical sources: Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs chrétiens, ed. Albert Blaise (Turnhout, 1954; reprint, 1967); an updated and enlarged version in Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs du moyen âge: Lexicon latinitatis medii aevi, praesertim ad res ecclesiasticas investigandas pertinens, ed. Albert Blaise (Turnhout, 1975).

Latin place names: Orbis latinus: Lexikon lateinischer geographischer Namen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, original edition by J. G. H. Graesse, reedited by H. Plechl and S.-C. Plechl, 3 volumes (Berlin, 1909; reprint, 1972).

Specialized vocabularies: Thesaurus poeticus linguae latinae ou Dictionnaire prosodique et poétique de la langue latine, ed. Louis Marie Quicherat, 31st edition (Paris, 1922; reprint, Hildesheim, 1967); Lateinische Rechtsregeln und Rechtssprichwörter, ed. Detlef Liebs, with Hannes Lehmann and Gallus Strobel, third edition (Munich, 1983); Rolf Lieberwirth, Latein im Recht, second edition (Berlin, 1988); J. A. Ankum and A. S. Hartkamp, Romeinsrechtelijk handwoordenboek (Zwolle, 1973); Richard Muller, Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms: Drawn Principally from Protestant Scholastic Theology (Grand Rapids, MI, 1985); Sven Lundström, Lexicon errorum interpretum Latinorum (Uppsala, 1983) [common errors made in translating Greek into Latin]; D. Gledhill, The Names of Plants (Cambridge, 1985); Glossarium eroticum linguae latinae, ed. A. R. and P. Dondey Dupré (Paris, 1826).

Wordbooks: Charles Martin, The Record Interpreter: A Collection of Abbreviations, Latin Words and Names Used in English Historical Manuscirpts and Records, second edition (London, 1910; reprint, Hildesheim, 1969); Renate Klauser and Otto Meyer, Clavis mediaevalis: Kleines Wörterbuch der Mittelalterforschung (Wiesbaden, 1962); Pierre Bonassie, Les cinquantes mots clefs de l'histoire médiévale (Paris, 1981; reprint, 1990); E. A. Gooder, Latin for Local History. An Introduction (London, 1961).

Latin philology and grammar: Albert Blaise, Manuel du latin chrétien (Strasbourg, 1955) and Le Vocabulaiare latin (1955); Karl Strecker, Introduction to Medieval Latin, trans. and ed. R. Palmer, third edition (Berlin, 1965); D. Norbert, Manuel pratique du latin médiéval (Paris, 1968); M. R. P. McGuire, Introduction to Mediaeval Latin Studies: A Syllabus and Bibliographical Guide, second edition with H. Dressler (Washington, 1977); V. Vaananen, Introduction au latin vulgaire, 3 ed. (Paris, 1981).

Paleography: Jacques Stiennon, Paléographie du Moyen Age (Paris, 1973); Bernhard Bischoff, Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages, trans. D. O Croinin and David Ganz (German original, 1979; ET, Cambridge, 1990); Michelle Brown, A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiqity to 1600 (Toronto, 1990).

Abbreviations: Adriano Cappelli, Lexicon abbreviaturarum: Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane, sixth edition (Milan, 1987); supplement in Auguste Pelzer, Abbréviations latines médiévales: Supplément au Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane de Adriano Cappelli, second edition (Louvain, 1966); ET as The Elements of Abbreviation in Medieval Latin Paleography, trans. David Heimann and Richard Kay (Lawrence, KA, 1982). See also Joannes Hulákovsky, Abbreviaturae vocabulorum usitatae in scripturis praecipue latinis mediiaevi, tum etiam slavicis et germanicis (Prague, 1852; reprint, Munich, 1988); Maurice Prou, Manuel de paléographie latine et française du VIe au XVIIe siècle, suivi d'un dictionnaire des abréviations, fourth edition (Paris, 1924); W. M. Lindsay, Notae latinae: An Account of Abbreviations in Latin Mss of the Early Minuscule Period (C. 700-850) (Cambridge, 1915); Doris Bains, A Supplement to Notae Latinae: Abbreviations in Latin MSS of 850 to 1050 A.D. (Cambridge, 1936); Luigi Schiaparelli, La scrittura latina nell'età romana (Como, 1921); M.-H. Laurent, De abbreviationibus et signis scripturae gothicae (Rome, 1939).

Tironian notes: Ferdinand Ruess, Die Kasseler Handschrift der Tironischen Noten samt Exgänzungen aus der Wolfenbüttler Handschrift (Leipzig, 1914); Emile Chatelain, Introduction à la cecture des Notes Tironiennes (Paris, 1900); Ulrich Kopp, Lexicon Tironianum: Nachdruck aus Kopps "Palaeographica Critica" von 1817 mit Nachwort und einem Alphabetum Tironianum von Bernhard Bishchoff (Osnabrück, 1965).

Punctuation: J. Moreau-Marichal, "Recherches sur la ponctuation," Scriptorium, 22 (1968), pp. 56-66; Patrizia Rafti, "L'interpunzione nel libro manoscritto: Mezzo secolo di studi," Scrittura e Civiltà, 12 (1988), pp. 239-98; M. B. Parkes, Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West (Berkeley, 1993).

Numbers: G. F. Hill, The development of Arabic Numerals in Europe (Oxford, 1915).

Editorial marks: J. Bidez and A. B. Drachmann, Emploi des signes critiques, disposition de l'apparat dans les éditions savantes de textes grecs et latins: conseils et recommandations, second edition by A. Delatte and A. Severyns (Paris, 1938); Antoine Dondaine, "Abbréviations latines et signes recommandés pour l'apparat critique des éditions de textes méiévaux," Bulletin de la Société Internationale pour l'Etude de la Philosophie Médiévale, 2 (1960), pp. 142-9; Ettore Falconi, L'Edizione diplomatica del documento e del manoscritto (Parma, 1969).

Bibliographic guidance: Henri Quellet, Bibliographia indicum, lexicorum et concordantiarum auctorum Latinorum: Répertoire bibliigraphique des index, lexiques et concordances des auteurs latins (Hildesheim, 1980).

 

5. Some useful guides to prosopography, topography, and chronology.

General: Ulysse Chevalier, Répertoire des sources historiques du moyen âge: Bio-bibliographie, second edition, 2 volumes (1905-7) and Répertoire des sources historiques du moyen âge: Topo-bibliographie, 2 volumes (1905-7).

Atlases: K. von Spruner and T. Menke (eds.), Hand-Atlas für Geschichte des Mittelalters und der Neueren Zeit, third edition (Gotha, 1880); Reginald Poole (ed.), Historical atlas of Modern Europe from the decline of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1902); J. Engel (ed.), Grosser historischer Weltatlas, II: Mittelalter, fourth edition (Munich, 1981); Donald Matthew (ed.), Atlas of Medieval Europe (New York, 1984); Colin McEvedy (ed.), The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (Harmondsworth, 1992). Also see Norman Pounds, An Historical Geography of Europe (Cambridge, 1990) and the studies of historical mapping collected in Géographie du monde du moyen âge et à la renaissance (Editions du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques; Paris).

Chronology: Adriano Cappelli, Cronologia, Cronografia e Calendario perpetuo dal principio dell'Era Cristiana ai giorni nostri, sixth edition (Milan, 1906) [reference of first resort]; L'art de vérifier les dates et les faits historiques, fourth edition by N. V. de St. Allais, et al., 44 volumes (Paris, 1818-44) [still very useful]; Reginald Poole, Medieval Reckonings of Time (London, 1918) and The Beginning of the Year in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1921); C. R. Cheney, Handbook of Dates for Students of English History (1945) [more general than its title suggests]; Chronologies of World History: H. E. L. Mellersh, The Ancient World: 10,000 B.C. to A.D. 799; R. L. Storey, The Medieval World: 800-1491; Neville Williams, The Expanding World: 1492-1762; Neville Williams and Philip Waller, The Modern World: 1763-1992; D. Justin Schove and Alan Fletcher, Chronology of Eclipses and Comets AD 1-1000 (Woodbridge).

Late antiquity: Janet Martindale (ed.), The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, 3 vols in 4 [1: A.D. 260-395; 2: 395-527; 3: 527-641] (Cambridge, -1992); Prosopographie chrétienne du Bas-Empire: A. Mandouze (ed.), Propopographie de l'Afrique chrétienne, 303-533 (Paris, 1982); H. Ebling, Prosopographie der Amtsträger des Merowingerreiches von Chlothar II. (613) bis Karl Martell (714) (Munich, 1974).

France: Dictionnaire de biographie française, 12 volumes to date (Paris, 1933-present); Dictionnaire topographique de la France comprenant les noms de lieu anciens et modernes, 37 volumes (Paris, 1861-1979); Jacques Boussard (ed.), Atlas historique et culturel de la france (Paris, 1957); Michel Parisse (ed.), Atlas de la France de lÍan mil (Paris, 1994); J. Moreau, Dictionnaire de géographie historique de la Gaule et de la France (Paris, 1972); Atlas historique français: le territorie de la France et de quelques pays voisins (1973-present).

England: Dictionary of National Biography, 22 volumes (London, 1921-22); H. C. Darby (ed.), A New Historical Geography of England Before 1600 (Cambridge, 1976); R. A. Dodgshon and R. A. Butlin, An Historical Geography of England and Wales (London, 1978); F. M. Powicke and E. B. Fryde, A Handbook of British Chronology, second edition (London, 1961); K. Harrison, The Framework of Anglo-Saxon History to A. D. 900 (Cambridge, 1976); David Hill, An Atlas of Anglo-Saxon England (Toronto, 1981).

Germany: Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 56 vols. (Leipzig, 1875-1912); Neue deutsche Biographie (Munishc, 1953-present).

Italy: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (Rome, 1960-present).

Eastern Europe: Philippe Lemarchand (ed.), L'Europe centrale et balkanique. atlas d'histoire politique (Paris, 1995).

Bishops: Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae, ed. Pius Bonifacius Gams, second edition (Leipzig, 1885; reprint, Regensburg, 1873); this is currently being reedited in Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae occidentalis ab initio usque ad annum MCXCVIII, ed. S. Weinfurter and Odilo Engels, 2 volumes to date (Stuttgart, 1982-present); Hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi [1198-1903], ed. C. Eubel, 6 volumes (Regensburg, 1913-58; reprint, 1960); Louis Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne gaule, 3 volumes (Paris, 1900-15); the volumes of Fasti Paul Antin, and Jacques Dubois, 13 vols. (Paris, 1935-1959); Bibliotheca Sanctorum, 13 vols. (Rome, 1961-1969); Histoire des saints et de la sainteté Chrétienne Ecclesiae Anglicanae (London, 1962-present); Gallia Christiana (as above); Italia Sacra (as above).

Monasteries: Laurent Cottineau, Répertoire topo-bibliographique des abbayes et prieurés, 2 volumes (Mâcon, 1935-7) [An index was added later]; Gallia Christiana (as above); Italia Sacra (as above); David Knowles, Christopher Brooke, J. London, The Heads of Religious Houses, England and Wales, 940-1216 (Cambridge, 1972).

Saints: Vies des et des bienheureux par les reverends pères bénédictins de Paris, eds. Jules Baudot, Paul Antin, and Jacques Dubois, 13 vols. (Paris, 1935-59); Bibliotheca Sanctorum, 13 vols. (Rome: Istituto Giovanni XXIII, 1961-1970; Histoire des saints et de la sainteté Chrétienne ed. Francesco Chiovaro et al., 11 vols. (Paris: Hachette, 1986-8); The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, ed. David Farmer, revised edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992); The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, ed. Donald Attwater (Harmondsworth: Penguin 1965).

Women: Anne Echols and Marty Williams (eds.), An Annotated Index of Medieval Women (New York, 1994).


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