CAPVII ENDNOTES.


(1) Powicke F.M., The Thirteenth Century., p.542.


(2) lured by the Welsh onto the Lafan sands at the Northern end of the Menai Straits and drowned with his troops by the rising tide. Morris J.E., The Welsh Wars of Edward Ist, (Oxford, 1901) p.60.


(3) this and subsequent references to the distraint question from Powicke M.R., Military Obligation in Medieval England, Cps V and VI; ibid., 'Distraint of Knighthood and Military Obligatio under Henry IIIrd', Speculum, xxv (1950); ibid., The General Obligation to Cavalry Service under Edward Ist', Speculum, xxviii (1953). See also Coss P., The Knight in Medieval England 1000-1400., (Stroud, 1996) pp.100-104.


(4) ibid., Military Obligation, p.108.


(5) Coss P., op.cit., p.102.


(6) Much has been written about the 1297 crisis. The seminal works were by Edwards J.G. 'Confirmation Cartarum and the Baronial Grievances in 1297' E.H.R. lviii (1943) and Rothwell H., 'The Confirmation of the Charters in 1297', E.H.R. lx (1945); ibid., 'Edward Ist and the struggle for the Charters', in Hunt R.W., (ed)., Studies in Medieval History presented to F.M. Powicke, (Oxford, 1948)


(7) Acland-Hood Manuscripts, Historical Manuscroipts Commission, Sixth Report, (1877), appendix p.344. See also Rothwell in Powicke Essays, p.326.


(8) From premunire, rogari et moneri to induci facias modis omnibus quibus melius videris expedire, which amounts to arm twisting rather than arm breaking. P.W., I. p.330.no.15; p.349.no.21.


(9) Coss P., The Knight in Medieval England 1000-1400., p.104.


(10) Powicke M.R., Military Obligation, p.117.


(11) Stubbs W., Select Charters, 9th Edition (Oxford, 1962) pp.457-8.


(12) 1300, Blount and Beauchamp of Fifield; 1303, Blount and Beauchamp together with Sutton, Duresme, Wauton, Heron, Clavering and Monteny; 1294, Clavering, Mare and Monteny.


(13) 1294, P.W., I. p.260.no.2; 1300, P.W., I. p.330.no.15; 1303, P.W., I. p.369.no.10.


(14) P.W., I. p.197.no.8; p.228.nos.16-17.


(15) P.W., I. p.224.no.6.


(16) P.W., I. p.226.no.9. This fell initially on the 30 librators, but was later relaxed.


(17) for the Muster of May 17th 1282, P.W., I. p.222.no.2.


(18) P.W., I. p.10.no.1.


(19) P.W., I. p.267.no.3.


(20) .W., I. p.299.no.42.


(21) P.W., I. p.317.


(22) 1278, P.W., I. p.214.no.1; 1285, P.W., I. p.249; 1292, P.W., I. p257; 1306 P.W., I. p.374.no.6.


(23) P.W., I. p.226.nos. 8 & 9.


(24) P.W., I. p.267.no.3.


(25) Bartholomew Cotton, Historica Anglicana, ed. H.R. Luard, Rolls Series (London, 1859) p.327.


(26) The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. H. Rothwell, Camden Society, 3rd Series lxxxix (1957) p.292.


(27) 1287, P.W., I. p.250.no.1; 1294, P.W., I. p.265.no.1; 8 September 1297, P.W., I. p.297.no.38; 22 September 1297, P.W., I. p.298.no.41.


(28) Bisson T., 'The military origins of medieval representation', A.H.R., lxxi (1966)


(29) Grapinel and Fillol, two of the most active and experienced of all the Essex knights.


(30) Gros, Wascoyl, Burham and Fitzwarin.


(31) Rothwell H., 'The Confirmation of the Charters', p.179.


(32) P.W., I. p.280.no.1; p.258.


(33) 1306 P.W., I. p.378.no.24.


(34) *** The Seagrave Case. Maitland F.W., Memoranda de Parliamento 1305, pp.255-263.


(35) P.W., I. p..204.no.8; P.W., I. p.233.no.16; PRO, Chancery, C.47. Bundle 5.no.6.


(36) P.W., I. p.204.no.8.


(37) P.W., I. p.233-240.no.16; PRO, Chancery., C.47 Bundle 5.no.6.


(38) Calendar of Close Rolls Various. (Calendar of Scutage Rolls)., p.114; p.373.


(39) Sanders I.J., English Baronies, p.4.


(40) P.W., II.ii p.590, nos. 254, 268, 271.


(41) Rotuli Parliamentorum I, p.48. Chancery Miscellanea no.1870; C.I.P.M., ii, no.636.


(42) C.I.P.M., I, no.850; ii, no.68; F.A., ii, pp.131 & 141.


(43) C.I.P.M., v, no.445; I, no.729; P.W., I. p.203, no.8.


(44) C.I.P.M., ii, no.68


(45) Richard de Tany, who held three fees in chief, C.I.P.M., iii, no.326.


(46) C.I.P.M., vi, no.47.


(47) F.A., v, p.2; C.I.P.M., ii, no.409; F.A., ii, pp.136 & 143; F.A., ii, p.146.


(48) in 1290. He may, of course have attended earlier parliaments for which no returns are available.


(49) references in Appendix H.


(50) Calendar of Close Rolls Various (Scutage Rolls, p.111


(51) in 1277, 1282, 1286, 1300 and 1303, references in Appendix H.; and in 1310, P.R.O., C.47, bundle 5, no.9.


(52) P.W., II.ii, p.589, no.250.


(53) see below***


(54) P.W., I. p.204, no.8; C.P.R. 1277, p.220.


(55) Calendar of Close Rolls Various, p.87; P.W. II.ii. p.430, no.40.


(56) 1281-2, P.R.O. C.47. Bundle 2. no.7.m.i; 1295, P.R.O., E.368, no.67.m.40; 1297, P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 6.no.28.m.ii.; 1299-1300, P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 9.no.23.m.iii; C.P.R. 1320, p.432.


(57) P.R.O., E.368. no.54, m.13; P.R.I, C.47, Bundle 5, no.10.m.ii.


(58) F.F., I, p.188 no.1082.


(59) an early example of a retaining contract. Morris J.E., The Welsh Wars of Edward Ist, p.71; Lewis N.B., 'The English Forces in Flanders in 1297', in R.W. Southern, (ed) Studies in Medieval History presented to F.M. Powicke.


(60) P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 6 no.28.m.ii.


(61) F.A. ii. pp.146 & 152; C.I.P.M. iii, no.682.


(62) C.P.R., 1296-7 p.302-3; P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 6.no.40.m.ii; P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 13.no.7.


(63) P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 6.no.40.m.ii.; P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 612.no.26.


(64) P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 9.no.24.m.vi; E.101 Bundle 612.no.9.m.i.


(65) in 1297-8, P.R.O., E.101, Bundle 6.no.40.m.ii; Calendar of Close Rolls Various p.87.


(66) F.F. I. p.83, no.59; C.C.R., 1302, p.604.


(67) Morris J.E., op.cit. pp.63-64.


(68) Sanders I.J., Englsh Baronies, pp. 4, 71, 52, 83, 102, 120, 121, 129, 130, 139, 139, 151.


(69) 1297, P.R.O., E.101. Bundle 6 no.40 m.viii; 1299, E.101. Bundle 8 no.23 m.vii; 1298, E.101/345/5/m.8 & 9, m.12d.


(70) Bigod, 1296-7, 25 marks, P.R.O., E.101. Bundle 6 no.40. m. ii; 1305-6, 30 marks, E.101/612/19/m.ii; Wauton, 1299-1300, 30 marks, E.101. Bundle 9 no.23. m. iii; 1281, 35 marks, P.R.O., C.47. Bundle 2 no.7 m. ii. Whilst he was in Flanders he had a rather cheaper horse valued at 12 marks, E.101. Bundle 6 no.28. m. ii; J. de Merk, 1295-6, 35 marks. His valettus had a rouncy valued at 10 marks, P.R.O., E.101/5/23/m. ii, 1296-7, 30 ,arks and valettus 24 marks, E.101, Bundle 6 no.37. m.i, 1299-1300, 35 marks, E.101, Bundle 8. no.23 m. ii, 1303-4, 40 marks, E.101/612/11/m. iii.


(71) Duresme, 1297-8, 10 marks, P.R.O., E.101 Bundle 6 no.40 m.ii, 1303-4, 8 marks, E.101/612/26; Sutton, 1300, 12 marks, E.101. Bundle 9 no.24 m.vi; 1302-3, 7 marks, E.101/612/9/m. ii.


(72) P.R.O., E.101. Bundle 6 no.40 m. ii, British Museum, Add. Ms. 8835 m. 53.


(73) P.R.O., C.47 Bundle 2 no.7 m. v.


(74) P.R.O., E.101. Bundle 13 no.35 m. xiv.


(75) P.R.O., C.47. Bundle 5 no.6 m. I; C.47. Bundle 5 no.10 m.iv. The name Beauchamp occurs frequently in the Horse Rolls but the references used here relate only to the specifically named John de Beauchamp of Fifield.


(76) P.R.O., C.47. Bundle 5 no.6 m. I; C.47. Bundle 5 no.9. m. 1.


(77) These figures are from P.R.O., E.101. Bundle 6 no,. 37. See also Morris J.E., op.cit., pp.82-3, and Wade-Labarge M., A Baronial Household of the Thirteenth Century, (London, 1965) pp. 158-9, for comparable figures. The most recent general studies of the medieval horse are Clark J., (ed) The Medieval Horse and its equipment, (London, 1995), and Davis R.H.C., The Medieval Warhorse, (London, 1989).


(78) P.W., I. p.320.no. 16.


(79) P.W., I. p.271.no.20; p.272.no.4.


(80) P.W., I. p.330.no.15.


(81) 11 April 1300, P.W., I. p.342.no.29.


(82) P.W., II.ii. p.409.no.38; 15 July. ibid., p.412.no.45.


(83) P.W., I. p.409.no.62; P.W., II.ii. p.409.no.38.


(84) P.W., II.ii. p.444.no.113.